Spanish Adjectives Guide

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spanish adjectives

In Spanish, adjectives follow the same rules as nouns do regarding gender and number.

For example:

El niño contento (The happy kid) → masculine singular adjective

masculine singular noun

Las niñas contentas (The happy girls) → feminine plural adjective

feminine plural noun

General rules:

Adjectives ending in -o.For the feminine form, the -o is replaced for an -a. E.g.: pequeño/pequeña; hermoso, hermosa
Adjectives ending in -an/-on/-or/ esFor the feminine form, you’ll add an -a.E.g.: haragán/haragana; mandón/mandona; trabajador/trabajadora; francés/esa.
Adjectives ending in -e y -lMasculine and feminine forms are both the same. E.g.: un gato inteligente/ una gata inteligente; una idea genial/ un libro genial.

Possessive Adjectives

Possessive adjectives are used for expressing possession. As regards singular and plural forms:

PersonSingular possessive adjectivePlural possessive adjectiveEnglish equivalent
First-person singularmimismy
Second-person  singulartutusyour
Third-person singularsusushis/her
First-person pluralnuestro/nuestra*nuestros/nuestras*our
Second-person pluralsususyour
Third-person pluralsusustheir

*Only possessive adjectives in the first-person plural have both masculine and feminine forms.

Also read about Ser y Estar

If the possessed object is one of anything→ the possessive adjective will be expressed in its singular form:

Mi libro → singular object (My book)

singular possessive adjective

Nuestra casa → singular object (Our house)

singular possessive adjective

If the possessed objects are more than one of anything→ the possessive adjective will be expressed in its plural form:

Tus gatos → plural object (Your cats)

plural possessive adjective

Nuestros perros → plural object (Our dogs)

plural possessive adjective

To keep in mind:

Possessive adjective are not used for body parts.

Me duele mi cabeza.
Me duele la cabeza.

Juana se cepilla sus dientes.
Juana se cepilla los dientes.

Demonstrative adjectives

Unlike English grammar, that has two forms of demonstrative adjectives (this and that), Spanish grammar has three: “este”“ese” and “aquel”.

“Este” is used to describe a noun that is close to the speaker:

Este restaurante es genial.
(This restaurant is great)

“Ese” is used to describe a noun that is far from the speaker:

Ese autobús va a Iguazú.
(That bus goes to Iguazú)

“Aquel” is used to describe a noun that is much further from the speaker:

Aquel vino es mejor.
(That wine over there is better)

Demonstrative adjectives, like most adjectives in Spanish, have 4 forms: masculine, feminine, singular and plural:

SingularPlural
Masculineesteestos
Feminineestaestas
SingularPlural
Masculineeseesos
Feminineesaesas
SingularPlural
Masculineaquelaquellos
Feminineaquellaaquellas

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